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Megalesia: Rome’s Shocking Religious Festival

by June 29, 2021

Written by Ed Whalen, Contributing Writer, Classical Wisdom
Religious festivals played a very important role in Rome and one of the most remarkable was the Megalesia, which was celebrated in the Republican and Imperial era. Dedicated to a goddess known as Magna Mater (Latin, literally ‘great mother’), the event was to many a shocking affair because of its eunuch priests and strange ceremonies. The festival honored the goddess but also served several other important functions.
Who Was the Magna Mater?
The Magna Mater was an ancient Anatolian goddess believed to have originated in prehistoric fertility cults and her worship may date back to the Neolithic period. In Phrygia (modern-day western Turkey) and elsewhere she was known as Cybele, but in Rome, she became known as the Great Mother.
Temple of Magna Mater on a relief now in Villa Medici, Rome
She can be understood to be an Earth Goddess, and her cult had the aspects of a Mystery Religion. Devotees were initiated into her mysteries and granted secret knowledge. The mother goddess was often depicted as traveling in a lion-drawn chariot. She was served by a eunuch priests and her worship was often controversial because of the wild behavior of her followers. Self-castration was often practiced by her male followers. 
The Origin of the Megalesia
During the Second Punic War (218 to 201 BC), Hannibal ravaged Italy. In 205 BC, the Romans were terrified by portents indicating imminent defeat and famine. In desperation, they consulted the Sibylline Books, a set of oracular writings. The religious advisors interpreted the books as stating that Rome must worship the Cybele. Diplomatic negotiations began to bring the goddess from Phrygia to Rome. She arrived in the city in the form of the a black meteoric stone from the ancient city of Pessinos. 
Cybele on a throne surrounded by a lion, cornucopia, and mural crown. Roman marble, c. 50 AD, source: Getty Museum
Roman worship of the Magna Mater was controversial. The majority of the population eventually embraced the cult in part because, once Cybele was brought to Rome, the tide of the war against Hannibal did indeed turn. The mother goddess cult soon became a state religion and the religious authorities in Rome decided to hold a festival in her honor. Her worship eventually spread throughout much of the empire.
The Megalesia Festival
The Romans initiated an annual celebration of the mother goddess in 191/192 BC which commenced after the construction of a temple in her honor by Marcus Junius Brutus. The festival, which was funded by the state, began on April 4th and lasted several days. The event included sacred plays and other entertainment likely staged in the Great Mother’s Temple. These sacred dramas were based on the story of Cybele and her eunuch consort Attis. 
During the Megalesia, the cult image of the Magna Mater was carried in a public procession. This process was decidedly unlike anything else in Roman religion, whose rituals were often austere and restrained. The procession was accompanied by eunuch priests and dancers often dressed as warriors. A crowned image of the goddess was drawn in a replica of her lion-chariot. On April 10, a cult image of the mother goddess was taken to the racetrack and chariot races were staged in her honor. Many sacrifices were made to the Magna Mater
During the festival, Roman nobles would spend lavishly on entertainment and banquets. The festival became infamous for riotous and outrageous behavior. In 106 BC, the Senate limited spending on entertainment during the festival. From an early date, Roman citizens could not participate in the procession as it was deemed unseemly. Slaves were excluded from even attending the festival. 
The religious procession and the celebrations of the eunuch priests were never fully accepted by members of the Roman elite, particularly the conservatives. It was seen by many as primarily a festival of the plebians, or common people.
Bronze fountain statuette of Cybele on a lion-drawn cart, 2nd century CE, source: Metropolitan Museum of Art
The popularity of this festival and the worship of the Magna Mater is evident in the establishment of a ‘Holy Week’ of sacrifices and celebrations in March in  honor of the goddess. This is often regarded as an extension of the Megalesia festival. 
The Holy Week festival was based on the myths of the Magna Mater and her consort and involved ritual castration and whipping on the so-called ‘Day of Blood’.  It is possible that versions of the Megalesia was also celebrated in the provinces of the Roman Empire.
The Function Of the Festival
The festival was primarily a religious event. Many ancient commentators saw the festival as honoring the Sibylline Oracles. The Oracles were seen as correct to recommend the adoption of the cult, as it helped Rome survive the crisis of the Second Punic War. 
Roman Imperial Attis with a Phrygian cap doing a cult dance
The festival also served other social functions. Many prominent Roman families claimed Trojan descent and because the goddess was associated with Phrygia—the homeland of the Trojans—they used the event to emphasize their claimed origins. In this way, they demonstrated their ancestry and social status, which in turn helped legitimize their rule. 
For the lower classes, the festival served to affirm their collective identity. At one point, the populist leader Clodius tried to control of the festival in a challenge to patrician control of the city. Cicero later successfully prosecuted Clodius for sacrilege.  
Conclusion
The Megalesia was a great religious festival in honor of a mother goddess whose origin is thought to be far more ancient than the Roman empire itself. The goddess’ arrival in Rome and subsequent worship there was thought to have saved the empire at a time of crisis. The festival was popular among both the plebians and the patricians but viewed with suspicion by the conservatives. The festival not only served an important religious role in Roman life but also played an important political and social role throughout the empire. 
References:
Beard, Mary, North, John and Price, Simon (1998). Religions of Rome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

The Mysterious Eleusinian Mysteries: Part 2

by June 25, 2021

Written by Mary Naples, Contributing Writer, Classical Wisdom
Part 1 of this series can be found here.
From the deep recesses of the Archaic era to enlightened Imperial Rome, the list of initiates into the Eleusinian Mysteries, a popular cult honoring the goddesses Demeter and Persephone, reads like a who’s who of the Classical era. Indeed, some of antiquity’s greatest names graced their ranks. 
Reluctant as they may have been to share their secrets—after all, it was heresy—it is thanks to their accounts (as well as those of tendentious Christian zealots, whose accounts are less reliable), that we know something about the Mysteries. As it stands, due to the cult’s hallmark secrecy, there is heated debate amongst the academic community as to the exact nature of the rites. Nonetheless, while the rites themselves may be in contention, where the rites were celebrated is not. 
To accommodate its great number of initiates, Demeter’s Temple—also called the Telesterion, or initiation hall—stood at a regal 51 x 51 meters. The largest public building in fifth-century (BCE) Attica, the Telesterion was a roofed temple with seating for several thousand spectators on eight rising steps.
Interior of Demeter temple, Eleusis, source: arjuna-vallabha
Unlike today’s religious structures, which are places of worship where adherents congregate, Greek temples were not designed for adherents but built solely to house deities. In this aspect, the Telesterion was a departure from conventional temples of the time. 
Inside the Telesterion was its inner holy sanctum called the Anaktoron, where the holiest of holy rites were performed. In her 2002 article about the Mysteries, Nancy Evans likened the Telesterion to an indoor square theater which is an apt comparison as the main event was highly theatrical. 
Perhaps the renown of the festival had as much to do with theatrics as it did with the promise of eternal salvation. In fact, some posit that the works of the early tragedians—indeed the art of theatre itself—may have sprung forth by the spectacular stagecraft presented during the Mysteries’ rites. 
Demeter Mourning for Persephone, by Evelyn De Morgan
The lead ‘actor’ in the mystia was the head priest or the hierophantes, which in ancient Greek means displayer of holy things. In this life-long appointed position, whose occupier was required to be from the original clans of Eleusis, it was imperative that the hierophant possess a melodious voice, as singing played a considerable role in the rites. 
It is supposed that it was the hierophant who played the role of the all-important Triptolemus—the scepter-wielding youth—who appears between the twin goddesses in artwork from the era. Though Triptolemus played a minor role as Demeter’s priest in the Homeric Hymn To Demeter, his part was greatly enhanced in the Mysteries—the mythological character became famous for introducing both agriculture and the Eleusinian Mysteries to humankind. 
Next in line to the hierophant was the dadouchos, or torchbearer, also a hereditary position that could last a lifetime. Because of his role as torchbearer, some posit that the dadouchos may have played the part of the cult-hero, Eubouleus. 
The so-called “Eubouleus,” marble bust, Roman copy after a Greek original from the 4th century BC
Although this character is not in the Hymn, in an Orphic rendition of the Demeter’s myth an unfortunate swineherd by the name of Eubouleus was sucked into a gorge along with his swine when the earth cleaved open and Hades abducted Kore. 
Although the Orphic version of the myth was subsequent to the Hymn, some contend that the Orphic myth may have reflected an even earlier tradition than the Hymn. Somewhere along the way, this humble swineherd informed Demeter of the whereabouts of Persephone. In fact, Eubouleus had such a cult following that in some versions of the myth he is alternatively either the son of mighty Demeter herself or of the all-powerful Zeus. 
With no mythological foundation, another cult figure is Iacchus, who is often identified with Dionysus (or Bacchus). He is depicted as either the son of Demeter or of Persephone. Iacche was a ritual cry that the initiates would shout during the procession along the Sacred Way as part of a processional rite in the Mysteries.
Although there were several priests below these ranks, there were only three noteworthy  priestesses. One priestess honored the double goddesses, Demeter and Persophone. Then there were two additional priestesses called the hierophantides. One represented Demeter, the other Persephone. According to Eleusinian scholar Kevin Clinton, on the night of the mysterai  the two hierophantides were said to have been decked out in full splendor to impersonate the twin goddesses and became the physical incarnations of Demeter and Persephone on earth. 
Persephone Returns to Earth, by Lorenzo Spatocco
The rite may hark back to a tradition from Minoan Crete, where priestesses physically represented the great mother goddess Ariadne and where Demeter also had a strong presence. But the twin goddesses were not the only deities represented in the Mysteries. Because the Mysteries emphasized the spiritual unity of all gods, two important gods adopted by the Eleusinian priesthood were Dionysus and Heracles.
As ancient Greek society became ever more male-oriented, the role of Dionysus as the son of Zeus began to supplant that of Persephone. Like Persephone, he died and was resurrected each year and was associated with fertility. In fact, some espouse that it was the presence of Dionysus and his characteristic theatrics which gave the cult its flair for drama.
The drama began in Athens on the 14th of Boedromion then made its way to the town of Eleusis on the 19th by way of a spectacular twelve-mile procession along the famed Sacred Way. Amid the sounds of singing and rejoicing, the cacophony must have been deafening as several thousand passionate followers— initiates and non-initiates alike—came together on the packed Athenian thoroughfare for the celebrated parade. 
Known for its egalitarianism, all walks of life were represented at the Mysteries. From citizens to courtesans, magistrates to masons, everyone joined the parade. After all, anyone free of “blood guilt” (murder) could be an initiate. 
Once in Eleusis, the initiates spent the day fasting and mourning, mirroring Demeter’s behavior in the Hymn when she was grieving for her daughter. The evening of the 20th marked the first moment the mystai, or novice initiates, were allowed to enter Demeter’s sanctuary where the Telesterion was housed. 
The Temple of Demeter, by Perikles Merakos
The most sacred of all nights, known as the “scene of beholding,” is believed to have been on either the 20th or the 21st (or perhaps both) when the nocturnal rites or teletai and the sacred drama or mysteria were performed. Once the mystai were initiated into the ranks of the epopteia (the seeing)—the  highest degree of initiation—they could take off their blindfolds and behold the mysteries. While much of what they witnessed remains under wraps, one thing is certain: fire played an enormous role in the rituals. 
In ancient Greece, fire was a means of communicating between the mortal and immortal realms; smoke from sacrificial fires rose to the celestial heavens as a means of placating the deity or deities for whom the sacrifice was intended. Fire was also often used in Greek mythology as a means of immortalizing humans. In the Hymn, Demeter attempts to immortalize the infant Demophoon by glazing him with ambrosia and burning him in the fire each night “as if he were a smoldering log.” 
The thinking was that because Hades stole a daughter from Demeter, she would immortalize a human, thus removing one from the lord of the underworld’s thriving enterprise. When Demophoon’s mother, Metaniera, comes upon Demeter incinerating her son in the family hearth, she screams—as  any mortal mother might. The scream, however, disturbs the ritual and the mighty Demeter, incensed at the foolhardiness of mortals, tosses Demophoon to the ground. 
Demeter holding Demophoon in the fire, by artist Willy Pogany (public domain)
In her rage, she sentences the infant—and  by implication, the rest of humankind—to  a life of mortal mediocrity. Thus we behold the Eleusinian Mysteries: formed as a compensatory action to placate the anger of the goddess, the rites were believed capable of restoring humankind’s lost immortality.
While what was revealed at the mysteria remains a mystery, there are some theories about what may have transpired. Although the hierophant’s voice played an integral role in the rites, the Mysteries were largely a visual experience. Literary sources detailing the remarkable sights within the Mysteries abound, from both pagan and early Christian chroniclers.  
Even the names of the sacred actors in the secret cult are emblematic of this. Hierophant signifies “revealer of sacred objects,” while the two levels of the initiates: myste and epoptes indicate “one whose eyes are closed” and “the seers” respectively. 
Yet, of all the sights, the one that was so impressive it would remain with initiates for the rest of their lives was the phenomenal light they were to have witnessed during the sacred drama. In fact, pyrotechnic expertise was characteristic of the Mysteries. 
In his treatise On the Soul, Plutarch reminisces: “But then one encounters an extraordinary light and pure regions and meadows offer welcome, with voices and dances and majesties of sacred sounds and holy sights.” This “extraordinary light” has been described by  ancients before and after Plutarch as the famous “fire of the mysteries.” 
A diagram explaining the Regina Vasorum (Queen of the Vases) which dates to the 4th Century BCE
In a mimesis of Demeter carrying the torch in search of Persephone, torches were widely used in the rites—not only great torches carried by the torch-bearing dadouchos and the hierophant but torches born by the initiates as well. In fact, Clinton posits there is evidence to suggest that the extraordinary light could have come from the fire of over a thousand torches held by the initiates: 
“The passage by Himerius informs us that the extraordinary light was furnished by torchbearers…probably at least a thousand torch bearers, standing not sitting.” He goes on to add that the torches carried by the initiates were far more dramatic than those carried by adherents of other cults, perhaps bigger and more imposing, leading to the notoriety of the “fires of Eleusis.”
The thousand torches, however, were not the only light show to which the ancients were referring. Making gods appear was another hallmark event for the Mysteries. In a third-century text, the hierophant Apollonius cries: “O initiates, you saw me then appearing from the Anaktoron in the bright nights…”  Living up to his title, it was the hierophant’s main task to display sacred objects which in the holiest of holy mysteria were the twin goddesses themselves—in all their radiant splendor. 
Ascending in full voice, the hierophant emerged from the Anaktoron for the scene of beholding to reveal the spectacularly colossal goddesses to the thousand torch-bearing and thousands more non-torch bearing initiates. For the grand finale of this sacred drama, the goddesses came alive—Persephone, the “Mistress of Fire”, rises from the land of the dead to join Demeter in her earthly domain. At long last, mother and daughter are reunited; humankind is saved.
No longer mere slabs of stone-cold marble, Demeter and Persephone looked for all the world like living goddesses—they were colorful, they were polished, but most of all they were illuminated. “Beauty blazing out,” is how Plato describes the goddesses during the Mysteries in Phaedrus. With their blindfolds freshly removed, the thunderstruck initiate’s first sight was of the glowing goddesses—indeed, such a dramatic spectacle might have rendered even the most stalwart of skeptics speechless. 
It is posited that the statues were illuminated by placing fiery candles in the hollowed-out interiors of the statues. After the light festival, did the sacred actors emerge accompanied by music and dancing to celebrate the reunion, as some contend? Were hallucinogenic drugs involved in the rites, as many posit? 
Alas, the view is often murky looking back over a span of thousands of years. On the following day, festivities continued and sacrifices were made in the public courtyard for the community at large, because even the uninitiated celebrated the Eleusinian Mysteries.
Their revels now ended, on the 23rd the initiates began the journey back to Athens, concluding the 9-day long festival—until the Mysteries began anew the following year. Practiced for over two thousand years, the Mysteries had become the largest and most celebrated of all religious cults in the Greco-Roman world. 
In 392 CE, Byzantine Emperor Theodosius I issued a comprehensive decree prohibiting pagan worship in favor of a burgeoning new religion that preached equality, promised a happy afterlife and included worship of a god whose son died and was resurrected so his followers would have everlasting life. 
In a sense, the Mysteries live on. 

The Mysterious Eleusinian Mysteries: Part 1

by June 23, 2021

Written by Mary Naples, Contributing Writer, Classical Wisdom
Conjuring up mystical images of secret initiation rites held under cover of darkness, the Eleusinian Mysteries were reputedly a dark and dangerous festival. In fact, the rituals were surrounded by such an aura of deadly secrecy that the tragedian Aeschylus was nearly killed on stage just for referencing them. But what were the Mysteries really about? And what made them so renowned? 
Demeter’s Rites of Eleusis—better known as the Eleusinian Mysteries—were egalitarian yet exclusive. Open to everyone free of “blood guilt” (murder) but exclusive to those initiated in their secret rites, this was one of the most acclaimed religious festivals in the Greek world. 
Like the all-female festival Thesmophoria, the Mysteries honored Demeter, goddess of the harvest and her daughter, Persephone, queen of the underworld. The Eleusinian Mysteries allegedly emerged as a masculine response to the Thesmophoria. The festival sprang from the myth in which Demeter’s daughter Kore is kidnapped by Hades, lord of the underworld. After her abduction, Kore’s name changes to Persephone.
Persephone, artist unknown
Carrying a torch, Demeter searches nine days for her daughter and has adventures with mortals along the way until she realizes her true strength lies in her fertility—so she halts the seasons. Earth becomes a barren wasteland. Zeus pleads with Demeter to make the earth abundant once again but she will not relent until Persephone is returned to her. Zeus orders Hades to release Persephone. Hades adheres, but not before luring Persephone into eating a pomegranate seed. The mere act of eating in the underworld binds Persephone to Hades for a few months each year. 
The myth is allegorical of agricultural renewal, from life to death and back again each year. Although agriculture played a part in the Mysteries, its role was greatly diminished in favor of the eschatological nature of Demeter’s story; that is to say, issues regarding life after death. In the minds of the ancients, nature’s resurrection each year was emblematic of humankind’s immortality. 
Thought to have predated the Greek Dark Ages (1100 BCE-800 BCE), the Mysteries reach back into the Mycenaean period (1600 BCE- 1100 BCE), yet the bulk of evidence about the festival dates from the Archaic period (800 BCE- 480 BCE). 
Although its foundations were in the Greek world, it was celebrated throughout the Roman Empire and garnered near-universal reverence up until the late fourth century CE when Byzantine Emperor Theodosius I proscribed worship outside Christianity. But the Eleusinian Mysteries were more than a religious festival. The event had become part of civic identity — its renown in ancient Greece and beyond played a pivotal role in shared cultural hegemony. 
The Eleusinian Mysteries by Paul Sérusier, 1888
What, then, was so mysterious about the Eleusinian Mysteries? The answer can be found in the word itself. Novice initiates of the cult were called mystai and the accompanying ever-secret initiation ritual was called mysteria; participation in the secret cult was restricted to its initiates and initiation ceremonies played a key role in the sacred rituals. 
The Eleusinian Mysteries were composed of both the Lesser Mysteries honoring Persephone and were observed in the spring. The Greater Mysteries, honoring Demeter and celebrated six months later, fell in the fall in the month of Boedromion, now known as September-October—directly before the sowing season which heralded the female Thesmophoria. 
As a preparation for the Greater Mysteries, a candidate could become a mystes, or novice-initiate, to begin his or her worship in the ranks of the Lesser Mysteries. The mystes would progress into the more enlightened Greater Mysteries once his or her initiation was complete. The initiation period is believed to have been a year, after which time the mystes, orblinded one, would ascend into the hallowed ranks of epoptes, or seer, and be able to participate as a full initiate of the Greater or Epoptical (all-seeing) Mysteries. 
Plan of the sacred buildings at Eleusis: 1. Temple of Artemis Propylæa, 2. Outer Propylæon, 3. Inner Propylæon, 4. Temple of Demeter, 5. Outer Enclosure of the Sacred Buildings, 6. Inner Enclosure. Source: Project Gutenberg via Encyclopædia Britannica
Though the most sacred of the rituals were celebrated in Eleusis—an agricultural town some twelve miles northwest of Athens—people  came from all over the Greco-Roman world to Athens to participate in the nine-day event. The procession from Athens to Eleusis was considered the most spectacular of all religious processions in the ancient world. In fact, the road between the two cities (called the Sacred Way) became so legendary that before the Romans arrived, it was the only road in all of central Greece that was not a goat path.
Adherents of the Mysteries came from all over the Greco-Roman world but the rituals were celebrated exclusively in Athens and Eleusis. Until the mid-sixth century BCE, Eleusis controlled the festival but after it was conquered by  Athens, the Athenians took over. This made the Mysteries more well-known and transformed the festival from Demeter’s Rites at Eleusis into the celebrated Eleusinian Mysteries.
Demeter and Persephone
Technically, membership in the Mysteries was unrestricted. Open to all men and women, slaves and foreigners alike—everyone ”free of the pollution of murder”—could  participate, yet in reality there were some restrictions. While foreigners were welcome in the Mysteries, initiates had to speak Greek as “not being a barbarian” was a requirement. This, however, changed when Athens assumed control of the rites. They lifted the Greek speaking requirement in order to promote the Mysteries across the Greek world and beyond. Might they also have lifted the blood guilt ban? Militarism had engulfed the region—soldiers were aplenty and encouraged to join the Mysteries, which they did with abandon. However, despite loosening their standards for some, during the fourth-century BCE, Athens tightened them for others. They began requiring initiates to pay fifteen drachmas for the privilege of membership. Fifteen drachmas was equivalent to ten days of labor—an amount that the poor or enslaved would likely have been unable to pay. 
While the rituals were initially concerned with Demeter’s imparting gifts of fertility and the cyclical nature of creation, over time they focused more on immortality. Of the Mysteries, the poet Pindar (498 BCE – 436 BCE) opined: “Blessed is he who has beheld the mysteries, descending in the Netherworld. He knows the aim; he knows the origin of life.” To be sure, the main focus of the Mysteries was the happy afterlife initiates were promised. 
In discussing the difference in focus between the all-female Thesmophoria and the Eleusinian Mysteries, classicist Marcia D. S. Dobson contends that the difference between the two cults could be based on gender, as women are closer to nature and therefore more accepting of death. She contends: “Because the male connection to the natural rhythms of life and death are not as immediate, a man experiences his mortality as a devastation of his individuality.” Rebelling against nature, men are at odds with the cyclical patterns of regeneration that the two goddesses represent; the assurance of a happy afterlife helps them overcome this dissonance. But are women any less interested in the notion of a happy afterlife than men?
It was during the Archaic era— when the Mysteries were in full swing— that the attitude toward death and afterlife began to shift in the Greek world. Prior to this era, death was viewed as part of the natural order of things and gloomily accepted. Over the course of time, however, as people began disconnecting themselves from the cyclical patterns of nature, death became more personal and a greater anxiety about it ensued. 
The Elesusinian Mysteries
Discussing changing attitudes toward death, scholar Christiane Sourvinous-Inwood, a leading voice on the Hellenic world, argues: “There was a shift in the attitudes in the Archaic period, from an acceptance of a familiar (hateful but not frightening) death, to the appearance of attitudes of greater anxiety and a more individual perception of one’s death, conducive to the creation of eschatologies involving a happy afterlife.” 
Alas, the Elysian Fields awaited only those infrequent few who were bestowed with immortality by the gods. To be sure, until the Mysteries began to gain a foothold, afterlife for the ancient Greeks was a cheerless proposition. Regardless of achievements and position in life, kings and slaves alike could expect to spend eternity fluttering around endlessly in a shadowy underworld. 
Even Achilles, war-hero great and demigod in life, was reduced to an insubstantial shade in dusty death: “No winning words about death to me, shining Odysseus!  By god, I’d rather slave on earth for another man–Some dirt-poor tenant farmer who scrapes to keep alive—than rule down here over all the breathless dead.” 
After all, if such a dismal destiny awaited a near god, what chance did an average bloke have? At the end of the day, faced with the prospect of a happy afterlife, is it any wonder that the ancients were lining up in droves to become initiates in the Eleusinian Mysteries?

Death, Funeral Rites and Burial in Ancient Rome

by June 1, 2021

Written by Lauren Groff, Contributing Writer, Classical Wisdom
The Romans had an enormous reverence for their ancestors and for death itself. What were their beliefs and customs surrounding the passing and burial of their loved ones? 
Belief In the Afterlife
Roman Sarcophagus
It was exceedingly important for the Romans to leave an enduring memory of themselves behind and one way they did this was by building elaborate tombs. They also demanded that family members have a feast in their honor on the tomb, so they would always be remembered. Some men ensured their memory by establishing funds of money, the interest from which was used for specific activities such as offering an annual feast for the people of their hometown.
Burial and Cremation
Necropolis of the Via Triumphalis, Rome
From the creation of Rome until about the mid-2nd century AD, cremation was the most common burial rite. The deceased would be taken to Rome’s necropolis (“city of the dead”) and placed upon a burning pyre. The ashes and remaining bone fragments were interned in a funerary urn. It was believed that the deceased’s “shade” (spirit) had not crossed the River Styx (the river that takes one from the World of the Living to the World of the Dead) until the body had been interred.
Landscape with Charon Crossing the Styx, by Joachim Patinier, c. 1515–1524, Museo del Prado, Spain
From the mid-2nd century on, burial became the preferred method of funeral rite. The deceased was placed inside a sarcophagus, which was often richly decorated. They were buried without their possessions, unlike other Mediterranean cultures. 
Burial Clubs
Not everyone could afford a sarcophagus, however. Rome’s poorest were often tossed into pits called puticuli, meaning “to rot or decompose”. These pits held a mixture of human remains, animal corpses, garbage, and excrement. Some of them were large, containing 24,000 corpses each.
This wasn’t the best way to be buried, so anyone who could afford it would join a burial club. A burial club was a group that charged monthly dues and if one of the members died, you would pool the clubs money to bury that member. A fee of 100 sesterces was required to join, and new members were sometimes required to bring a jar of wine. Some of these clubs had a mixed membership of slaves and free people. If someone committed suicide, however, this person was considered to have forfeited his right to a funeral. Burial clubs had elaborate rules governing member functions. 
Tomb Building
A young girl’s funerary mask, Roman Gaul, photo by Rama
The heirs of the deceased were responsible for the construction of their loved ones’ tombs. There were often stipulations on how the tomb was to be constructed or that the heir would not receive their inheritance until the deceased was buried in the specified manner. Many heirs resented this and included their names on the constructed tombs, sometimes taking up more prominence than the deceased relative themselves. 
Funerals in Ancient Rome
A funeral began with a procession to the burial place. The corpse was carried in a bier (a bed-like tray). The procession was a loud and raucous affair. The wealthier and more famous the deceased was in life, the more ostentatious the funeral procession would be, with more musicians, actors, and even mimes. Professional mourners were hired to participate in the procession, ripping their hair out and wailing. The more professional the procession, the wealthier the deceased had been in life. 
Funeral Rites for a Roman Emperor, by Giovanni Lanfranco, c. 1636, Museo del Prado, Spain
Eulogies
If the deceased had been an important member of state or had made a strong impression their family, then an eulogy for the deceased would be delivered. Many examples of eulogies have survived to this day. 
Feast
The ancient Romans loved a feast, and funerals were no exception to this rule. It was a common practice to have a ritual feast after the cremation or burial of the deceased. Burials and funerals in Ancient Rome were an important part of Roman culture. Honoring one’s ancestors and remembering those that came before them was important to them.
Lauren Groff is a history writer at Essay writing service and Best custom writing services. She writes articles about Ancient Rome. She is also a blogger at Academized Review.

The Sudanese Pyramids: Wonders of Ancient Africa

by May 28, 2021

Written by Ed Whalen, Contributing Writer, Classical Wisdom
We are all familiar with the pyramids of ancient Egypt and Mesoamerica, but few people are aware of the pyramids built by the remarkable African people in what is now North Sudan. The Nubian pyramids are a very important part of the heritage of Africa and provide a remarkable insight into the history of the continent. 
The History of Nubia
Pyramids at Meroe
The Nubians were an ancient people and were well-known to the Egyptians, who at times dominated them politically. They lived in a region that lies today mostly in Northern Sudan. Nubia was heavily influenced by Egypt but developed a distinctive culture. The first great Nubian kingdom was the Kerma kingdom. Later, the Kushite Nubian kingdom dominated Egypt. Expulsed by the Assyrians, the Nubians fell back beyond the First Cataract of the Nile and established a kingdom at Meroe (c 550 BC-500 AD). 
This period marked something of a Golden Age for the Africans. It seems that the Nubian kingdom came briefly under the control of the Persians and the Ptolemies but for the most part, Nubia was able to maintain its independence and culture. Their religion, however, was almost identical to that of the ancient Egyptians. 
In the first century AD, under Queen Kandake the Nubians fought the Romans to a standstill. During the third century AD, Nubia was Christianized by Egyptian monks and merchants. At about the same time, the Kingdom of Meroe was invaded by  invasion from Aksum (Ethiopia) and split into three smaller kingdoms. In the seventh century, the Christian kingdoms successfully resisted the Arabs and enjoyed great prosperity and peace. Nubia was finally conquered by Mamluk Egypt in the 14th century AD. 
The Nubian Pyramids
Statues of Nubian rulers from the late 25th Dynasty–early Napatan period, 7th century BC, source: Kerma Museum
The pyramids were mostly built between 300 BC and 300 AD. There are an estimated two hundred pyramids in Northern Sudan, if not more—far more numerous than in Egypt. They were built by Nubian kings who, like the Pharaohs, were seen as divine. The kings and queens of Nubia were buried in these structures. They were interred with vast amounts of gold and other precious metals and most likely mummified. Sadly, these royal tombs were all looted long ago. 
The Pyramids of the African kingdom are markedly different from their northern neighbors; they are much narrower and have an incline of about 70 degrees, a much steeper angle than those at Giza. The Nubian pyramids are composed of tiers of laid stones blocks, that are roughly six to 10 feet in size. 
Perhaps the most distinctive feature of the structures in Nubia is that they include what has been interpreted as an offering temple. These temples are decorated with iconography that is uniquely Kushite. Here, monarchs were buried for centuries. The vast majority of the pyramids are located at three sites, the most important of which is the former royal seat of Meroe, where there are 50 tombs. Another important site is Nuri. Curiously, archaeologists have found rocks that ring when struck and believe they may have been used in rituals. 
The Importance of the Nubian Pyramids
Nuri: Pyramids of Kushite rulers
These structures stand testament to the wealth and power of ancient Nubia. As the burial place of the dead monarchs, they were central to the Nubian religion. Priests often performed sacrifices and rituals honoring the deceased monarch in the offering temples at the base of the pyramids. It is believed this was done in the hopes that the dead king or queen would intercede with the gods on behalf of their former subjects. 
The Nubian pyramids required immense resources and labor and as such, they likely contributed to the development of the state. While these structures were undoubtedly influenced by Egypt, they were equally an expression of national identity. The Nubians appear to have revived the building of pyramids centuries after the Egyptians abandoned their construction. Why this was the case no one knows. It is possible that as ancient Egypt came under Macedonian and later Roman rule, the Nubians saw themselves as the heirs of ancient Egyptian civilization and this led to the revival in pyramid-building. 
The Decline of the Nubians Pyramids
Illustration of the pyramids at Meroe, credit: Charlie Swerdlow, source: Behance
The last Nubian pyramids date to the third century AD. After this, they abruptly cease, which may be related to the decline in the power of the Meroite kings and queens. The region was also becoming increasingly Christianized. As monarchs adopted Christianity, many customs and practices—including the interring of monarchs in tombs—were left behind. 
After the conquest of Nubia by the Egyptian Mamluks and later the Ottomans, the region became Islamic and the tombs buried under the sands of Sudan. They were discovered by European explorers in the 19th century and excavated by archaeologists, who study them for insights into the Nubian society and civilization. 
Conclusion
The pyramids of Nubia are among the wonders of the ancient world. They were a product of a unique and very successful civilization deeply influenced by ancient Egypt but also distinctively its own. The pyramids played a crucial role in the development of Nubia and were a crucial part of their religion. Today, they are becoming increasingly popular with tourists and more tombs may even be unearthed in the future. However, the pyramids are at risk of flooding and neglect, raising concerns for the future of these ancient wonders. 
References:
Lacovara, P., 2018. Pyramids and Obelisks Beyond Egypt. Aegyptiaca. Journal of the History of Reception of Ancient Egypt, (2), pp.124-137.
Emberling, G., 2011. Nubia: ancient kingdoms of Africa. Institute for the Study of the Ancient World at New York University.

Women’s Rights in Ancient Greece

by May 25, 2021

Written by Angela J. Bryant, Contributing Writer, Classical Wisdom
The issue of women’s rights is often considered unique to the modern era. However, it has been an issue as far back as Ancient Greece.
Ancient Greece: Limited Rights Abound
A Greek Woman, by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema
Perhaps unsurprisingly, women had few rights compared with men back in Ancient Greece. They weren’t able to vote, nor could they own or inherit the land. Women were largely relegated to the home, taking care of cooking and cleaning, running the house, and bringing up the children.
However, those statements may not be entirely true given that they are based on evidence of life in the capital city of Athens. They may not be applicable to all areas of the Greek empire.
In Sparta, for example, women would undergo physical training just like men. They were able to own land and enjoyed the luxury of drinking wine. At one point, it’s even documented that around 40% of all property was owned by Spartan women. Spartan women were also educated and allowed freedom of movement.
Women in Mythology: Spiritual Power
Athena, attributed to Rembrandt, 17th century
There’s no denying that Greek mythology is one of the richest to have come down to us through the ages. Many of us grow up hearing about the battles, struggles, and turmoil of the Greek gods—and goddesses! Indeed, many of these myths are rich in female lead roles.
Among the most prominent was the goddess Athena, whom the capital city of Athens is named after. Hailed as the goddess of wisdom, Athena was the all-powerful figure that represented traits like courage, honor, and intelligence.
Of course, the Greek empire was revolutionary when it came to agriculture and farming, practices that revolved around two other powerful female figures: Persephone and Demeter, both goddesses of fertility.
That being said, there’s no doubt that women were also respected for their mystical powers. Goddesses like Aphrodite and Hera were known for their powers of seduction and cleverness, often derailing the male heroes of the lore.
“It’s interesting to think whether women at the time were influenced by the mythology which was so prevalent back then,” said Nick Turner, a history writer at Writinity and DraftBeyond. “What did women think of the female goddesses in power and their stories related to men? Did they care? What did they think of their male role models? There is sparse documentation, so we’ll probably never know.”
Conclusion
Women’s rights in ancient Greece differed depending on the city and local culture. Spartan and Athenian women led radically different lives. However, in the ancient Greek world as a whole, women retained significant symbolic power through their archetypes, the goddesses. 
Angela J. Bryant is a successful writer and editor at Lucky Assignments and Gumessays. She specializes in topics related to social media, business, and health.
References:
Status of Women in Ancient Greece, by Zhulduz Amangelidyevna Seitkasimova, Open Journal for Anthropological Studies, Center for Open Access in Science, January 2020