*To Be Continued….*

# Category Archives: People

[post_grid id="10022"]## The American Cincinnatus

*by Kayla Kane, Contributing Writer, Classical Wisdom*

*Ab Urba Conditia*. Livy recalls an iconic moment in his country’s history: “They sent for consul Nautius; in whom when there seemed to be insufficient protection, and they were determined that a dictator should be appointed to retrieve their embarrassed affairs, Lucius Quinctus Cincinnatus is appointed by universal consent.”

*knew*the Greco-Roman classics, but

*utilized*them for the sake of political achievement, the common good, and personal reputation.

*become*a classical figure… And clearly he did.

## Epicurus – Proto-Scientist, Secular-Saint, and Sophisticated Hedonist

*By Jacob Bell, Contributing Writer, Classical Wisdom*

## Xenophon: A Biography of the Historian, Poet and Military Strategist

*By Eldar Balta, Contributing Writer, Classical Wisdom*

**Xenophon’s Early life**

*Anabasis*, invited by his friend Proxenus to join the military expedition…one that marked his life and lifetime work. He became a mercenary for Cyrus the Younger against his elder brother, King Artaxerxes II of Persia.

**Xenophon’s Career**

**Xenophon and his Ten Thousand men**

*Anabasis*, one of Xenophon’s greatest works, is where you can read in detail his struggles and strategies. This epic adventure is the reason why “the centuries since have devised nothing to surpass the genius of this warrior”, as quotes military historian Theodore Ayrault Dodge. We, however, will cut the story short here and say that he got his men safely back home.

**Tissaphernes – a name we told you not to forget**

*Anabasis, Agesilaus, Polity of the Lacedaemonians,*and

*Hellenica*.

*Agesilaus*, Xenophon:

«It would be hard to discover, I imagine, anyone who in the prime of manhood was as formidable to his foes as Agesilaus when he had reached the limit of mortal life. Never, I suppose, was there a foe-man whose removal came with a greater sense of relief to the enemy than that of Agesilaus, though a veteran when he died. Never was there a leader who inspired stouter courage in the hearts of fellow-combatants than this man with one foot planted in the grave. Never was a young man snatched from a circle of loving friends with tenderer regret than this old graybeard.»

“But here was Lysander back again. Everyone recognized him and flocked to him with petitions for one favour or another, which he was to obtain for them from Agesilaus. A crowd of suitors danced attendance on his heels and formed so conspicuous a retinue that Agesilaus, anyone would have supposed, was the private person and Lysander the king.«All this was maddening to Agesilaus, as was presently plain. As to the rest of the Thirty, jealousy did not suffer them to keep silence, and they put it plainly to Agesilaus that the super-regal splendor in which Lysander lived was a violation of the constitution.«So when Lysander took upon himself to introduce some of his petitioners to Agesilaus, the latter turned them a deaf ear. There being aided and abetted by Lysander was sufficient; he sent them away discomfited.«At length, as time after time things turned out contrary to his wishes, Lysander himself perceived the position of affairs. He now no longer suffered that crowd to follow him and gave those who asked him help in anything plainly to understand that they would gain nothing, but rather be losers, by his intervention.«But being bitterly annoyed at the degradation put upon him, he came to the king and said to him: “Ah, Agesilaus, how well you know the art of humbling your friends!” “Ay, indeed,” the king replied: “Those of them whose one idea it is to appear greater than myself. If I did not know how also to requite with honour those who work for my good, I should be ashamed.”«And Lysander said: “Maybe there is more reason in your doings than ever guided my conduct” adding, “Grant me for the rest one favour, so shall I cease to blush at the loss of my influence with you, and you will cease to be embarrassed by my presence. Send me off on a mission somewhere; wherever I am I will strive to be of service to you.”

**Apostle of Socrates**

*Memorabilia, Apology, Oeconomicus,*and

*Symposium*were all Xenophon’s gospels to Socrates. He admired his teacher very much (along with fellow protege Plato). So much so that some conjecture that Socrates would not have been sentenced to death if Xenophon had been in Athens instead of on a military expedition in Persia.

“They say that Socrates met Xenophon in a narrow lane, and put his stick across it and prevented him from passing by, asking him where all kinds of necessary things were sold. And when he had answered him, he asked him again where men were made good and virtuous. And as he did not know, he said, ‘Follow me, then, and learn.’ And from this time forth, Xenophon became a follower of Socrates.”

**Xenophon’s Works**

*Anabasis, Cyropaedia, Hellenica, Agesilaus*, and

*Constitution of the Lacedaemonians*.

*Memorabilia, Apology, Oeconomicus,*and

*Symposium*. Finally his ‘other’ works are:

*Hiero, On Horsemanship, Hipparchikos, Hunting with Dogs*, and

*Ways and Means.*

**Xenophon’s Death**

**Xenophon’s Achievements and Legacy**

*Anabasis*was used as a field guide by none other than Alexander the Great during the early phases of his expedition into Persia. Moreover,

*Memorabilia*had a huge and important impact on the Founding Fathers of the United States, Benjamin Franklin and John Adams, in particular. Clearly Xenophon’s influence on mankind can not be overstated.

## Euclid: The Father of Geometry

*By Jocelyn Hitchcock, Contributing Writer, Classical Wisdom*

**Euclid’s Early Life**

**Euclid’s Career**

*the Elements*, to which Euclid replied that there was no royal road to geometry.” This would suggest that not only was Euclid noteworthy among mathematicians and scientists in Alexandria, but was prominent enough to have an audience with the ruler of Egypt. As with details of his early life, we don’t know specifics regarding his career, save for his extant works and the fact that he was a prominent teacher in Alexandria.

**Euclid’s Works and Achievements**

*The Elements*, is a proto-textbook of 13 sections pulling together definitions, theories, and constructions of mathematics at the time. He covers geometry, number theory, and incommensurate lines- all subjects that have proved to be invaluable over the development of mathematics.

*The Elements*consisted of five general axioms and five geometrical postulates. Euclid provided the basic model for mathematical argument that follows logical deductions from initial assumptions. For those of us (including myself) who are not so mathematically inclined to understand the nitty-gritty details of Euclid’s

*Elements*, Sir Thomas Heath sums them up in his 1908 publication

*The Elements of Euclid*:

**The 5 Axioms of Euclid:**

1. Things which are equal to the same thing are also equal to one another

2. If equals are added to equals, the whole (sums) are equal

3. If equals are subtracted from equals, the remainders (differences) are equal

4. Things that coincide with one another are equal to one another

5. The whole is greater than the part

**The 5 Geometric Postulates:**

1. It is possible to draw a straight line from any point to any point

2. It is possible to extend a finite straight line continuously in a straight line

3. It is possible to create a circle with any center and distance

4. All right angles are equal to one another

5. If a straight line falling on two straight lines makes the interior angles on the same side less than two right angles, the straight lines, if produced indefinitely, will meet on that side on which the angles are less than two right angles.

*the Elements*, five other works of Euclid have come down to us and have been able to be interpreted: Data, dealing with the nature and implications of “given” information in geometry;

*On Divisions of Figures*, dealing with the division of geometrical figures into two or more equal parts or into parts in given ratios;

*Catoptrics*, dealing with the theory of mirrors and the images formed in plane and spherical concave mirrors;

*Phaenomena*, a treatise on spherical astronomy; and

*Optics*the earliest surviving Greek treatise on perspective.

**Euclid’s Death and Legacy**

*the Euclid Spacecraft*.

## Thales of Miletus and the Birth of Western Philosophy

*“Thales of Miletus and the Birth of Western Philosophy”*was written by Van Bryan