Musonius: The Roman Socrates
Musonius Rufus was born sometime before 30 A.D. to an Etruscan family in the town of Volsinii. Considered one of
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Protagoras
Branch: Ethics Approach: Relativism “Man is the measure of all things” Protagoras was born in Abdera, in northeast Greece. He would
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Zeno of Elea (490-430 BCE)
Branch: Epistemology Approach: Paradox’s (reductio ad absurdum) Zeno of Elea was a rather interesting presocratic philosopher, though that isn’t to
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Zeno of Citium (332-265 BCE)
Branch: Ethics Approach: Stoicism “Happiness is a good flow of life” Zeno of Citium was born around 332 BCE, some
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Thales of Miletus (624-546 BCE)
   Branch: Metaphysics Approach: Monism “Hope is the only good that is common to all men; those who have nothing else
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Socrates (469-399 BCE)
Branch: Epistemology Approach: Socratic Dialogue “The life that is unexamined, is not worth living” Socrates is often pointed to as
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Pythagoras (570-495 BCE)
Branch: Metaphysics Approach: Pythagoreanism “Reason is immortal, all else mortal” While Pythagoras has become known as one of the first
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Plato (427- 347 BCE)
Branch: Epistemology Approach: Rationalism “And first he will see the shadows best, next the reflections of men and other objects
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Heraclitus (535- 475 BCE)
Branch: Metaphysics Approach: Monism “Nothing endures but change.“ Like many of the pre-Socratics, the philosopher Heraclitus would be remembered for
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Parmenides (515-445 BCE)
Branch: Metaphysics Approach: Monism “The only roads of inquiry there are to think of: one, that it is and that
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