Meaning of Name: “To move back” – perhaps in reference to its horns.
First Spotting: Ethiopia
Form: Antelope or goat-like creature that is the size of a hippopotamus, with an elephant’s tail, usually black or tawny in color, with the jaws of a boar and movable horns.
Food: People and large animals
How it attacks: Presumably, it must ram its prey with its moveable horns and tusks.
Latest Spotting: A popular emblem in medieval times for royal banners, the yale or eale has found its way to Yale University’s banners and perhaps into the basements of the campus itself.
Weaknesses: Other Eales or Yales, tall mountains, and loud university rallies.
Sources: Pliny the Elder’s Natural History.
Meaning of Name: Man-Eater
First Spotting: Persia
Form: Body of a red lion, a human head, with a trumpet-like voice. Sometimes it is seen with horns or wings.
Food: People and large animals
How it attacks: Its tail has been found in the form of a dragon or scorpion which shoots poisonous spines that paralyze and kill its victims.
Latest Spotting: Commonly, the manticore has been spotted in archaic themed video games such as God of War and Age of Mythology. Recently, one manticore was seen debuting in his first film: Percy Jackson and Sea of Monsters. He sadly did not survive to make a sequel.
Weaknesses: A ranged weapon…maybe or, it is probably just best to stay away.
Sources: Ctesias, Indica, Pausanias, Guide to Greece, Aelian, On Animals, Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana, Pliny the Elder, Natural History, Eusebius, Against Hierocles, Photius, Myriobiblon.
3. Basilisk or Regulus
Meaning of Name: “Little King”
First Spotting: Cyrene, Libya
Form: A small snake “not longer than twelve fingers” with a crown shaped crest on its head. At times, the basilisk is seen with the head of a cockatrice due to its odd birthing ritual involving a toad and cockatrice.
How it attacks: By bite or gaze; its bite or gaze is extremely lethal.
Latest Spotting: A large basilisk was spotted in the early Harry Potter film franchise living in Hogwarts’ pipes. Rowling also mentions its presence in her own monster guide book: read it here. Its eggs are a unique and rare item that players attempt to find in the latest video game: Final Fantasy XIV.
Weaknesses: The scent of a weasel for some reason scares and may even be lethal to Basilisks, so when going out this Hallow’s Eve make sure to have your special weasel “perfume” at the ready! Also, a mirror to reflect its lethal gaze may work as well.
Sources: Pliny the Elder’s Natural History
Meaning of Name: “The Evil One”
Origins: Rome; Aventine Hill
Form: A giant who breathes fire and smoke. He is the son of Vulcan.
Food: Human flesh, but not their heads. He nails the heads of his victims decoratively outside his cave.
How it attacks: He attacks and kills its enemies and prey by breathing fire and smoke onto them.
Latest Spotting: While Cacus has not been seen since Hercules apparently strangled him to death; The Percy Jackson series makes mention of him; suggesting that he did not die or has a brother.
Weaknesses: Divine strength or a big club. Let’s take a tip from Hercules and use the skills of a demi-god to defeat this monster and any of his siblings.
Sources: Virgil, Aeneid, Ovid, Fasti, Propertius, Elegies.
Meaning of Name: “Mother of Ants”
First Spotting: Libyan Desert sprouting from the blood of Medusa’s head, and later by Cato’s army.
Form: A two headed serpent, whose tail has the second head; however this “serpent” is about the size of a long worm. The addition of wings and chicken feet was reported by later sightings.
Food: Anything living or dead
How it attacks: It has a poisonous bite.
Latest Spotting: They appear to have been a popular inspiration within Insular art during the Middle Ages; however they are said now to be “summoned” by a Dungeon Master when playing the game: Dungeons and Dragons.
Weaknesses: Really thick shoes and an aggressive stomp.
Sources: Pliny the Elder’s Natural History, Aelian, On Animals, Diodorus Siculus, The Library of History.
Safety and Caution Procedures
Now, while most of these monsters will leave you alone if you leave them alone; if you happen to run into one of these creatures you must :
I. Run as fast you can and avoid eye contact
II. Summon your inner hero strength and fighting skills
III. Pray to the Roman Gods
IV. Rent a Pegasus and fly away.