Category Archives: Leaders[post_grid id="10034"]
by Kayla Kane, Contributing Writer, Classical Wisdom
If you want to study George Washington, then you should first know Lucius Quinctus Cincinnatus of the early Roman republic. Rendered a cultural icon in his own era and indeed today as well, Cincinnatus achieved fame through unconventional means. Although he provided selfless service to his Republic during times of crisis, the classical hero is most storied for his tendency to surrender his power once the crisis had been eliminated.
Rome became a republic in 509 BC, however, at certain times a dictator was appointed in order to make quick decisions and defend the state at war. Livy reflects on Cincinnatus’ military service in his lengthy history of Rome Ab Urba Conditia. Livy recalls an iconic moment in his country’s history: “They sent for consul Nautius; in whom when there seemed to be insufficient protection, and they were determined that a dictator should be appointed to retrieve their embarrassed affairs, Lucius Quinctus Cincinnatus is appointed by universal consent.”
As a retiree, Cincinnatus lived at the bank of the Tiber river and tended to domestic duties on his farm. However, when twice Rome was called to fight against a foreign invasion (in 458 BC and 439 BC), Cincinnatus suspended his retirement to serve his treasured Republic.
The historian Rob Hardy describes the unique situation; “Cincinnatus was living in retirement on his four-acre farm outside of Rome and representatives found him in his field. When he learned of the emergency facing Rome, he left his plow standing in the field, bid farewell to his wife, and led the Romans to victory against the Aequians. Fifteen days after assuming the dictatorship, Cincinnatus resigned and returned to his plow.”
While this selfless, self-sacrificing service was worthy of universal recognition, what rendered Cincinnatus a universal legend came after this military service. Having assumed victory over the Aequians, citizens wished to make Cincinnatus their king. Rather than accepting this famed title, Cincinnatus refused, and instead retreated to his farm. In so doing, Cincinnatus maintained Republican values rather than allowing Rome to descend back into a monarchy.
This brings us to our main point: the anti-monarchical leader of America’s infancy, George Washington, was lauded for his leadership tendencies similar to those of Cincinnatus.
The American public has long regarded George Washington as a champion of the common good. As the first American president, Washington became a pioneer in limiting the presidential reign to two terms, allowing the office to evolve with popular opinion.
He, like Cincinnatus, was renowned for his voluntary surrender of power, particularly in three incidences: his retirement from the British Army, the Continental Army, and the Presidency. Washington became a hero in both public service and in his ability to resign when the service had been fulfilled.
With hindsight of the Roman Republic guiding politicians of the revolutionary era, many historians credit Washington’s devout public focus to Lucius Quinctus Cincinnatus, his classical counterpart. Having presided over the American Society of the Cincinnati, it is evident that Washington was knowledgeable of Cincinnatus’ history as a retired Roman consul and war hero. Due to this knowledge, Washington not only knew the Greco-Roman classics, but utilized them for the sake of political achievement, the common good, and personal reputation.
Like Cincinnatus, Washington’s most famed quality was not his accomplishments as a statesman, but rather, his refusal to accept further political honors beyond his targeted feats. It is thus fitting that Washington’s retirement became a symbol of his self-sacrificing virtue as a political figure.
1759 marked Washington’s first “retirement,” in which he left his military career from the French-Indian Wars and began his life as a planter in Mount Vernon. After serving as commander-in-chief of the Virginia forces, Washington first “retired” at the ripe age of 26. Seeing that a sustainable career in the British army was not open to him, he decided that he must make his way in private life.
It is critical to observe that Washington’s initial withdrawal from public service was uniquely unlike his penultimate and ultimate retirements. Therefore, it is perhaps logical to separate this young, uncharacteristic resignation from the collective narrative of Washington’s retirement. Washington’s initial retirement lacks the motives of Roman virtue that his other two embody, which brings into question whether historians should consider the end of Washington’s first career a “retirement” at all.
Washington’s second retirement seeks and deserves far more recognition than his first. This iconic resignation followed Washington’s role as the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, from which he resigned, accepting no pay, prize, or office. The revolutionary historian W.W. Abbot states that, “this act of retirement was perhaps the single most important action of his career.” Washington’s exit with no reward shocked the American and European consciousness while giving America a symbol, one of unity, with which the nation could define itself.
Through this retirement, Washington exemplified the quintessential, selfish selflessness of his political career. Washington accepted his role as a symbol, and furthermore sought not to overstep political necessity. As Abbot aptly states, “It made the Cincinnatus of the west a great man: great in the eyes of the world, in the eyes of his countrymen, and, in a very real sense, his own.”
Washington’s selfishness came from his satisfaction with his idealized image, an icon even in “his own” eyes. Despite the public benevolence with which he retired, Washington was playing a typical, self-righteous revolutionary role of classical emulation.
It is impossible to fully comprehend Washington’s final retirement without an understanding of his farewell address. He defines patriotism along the criteria of his own actions. The president stresses, “I have the consolation to believe that, while choice and prudence invite me to quit the political scene, patriotism does not forbid it.” Like his retirement itself, Washington’s farewell address was a highly-calculated testament to his noble reputation, one which, he hoped, his country would remember past his presidency.
Following his farewell address, Washington’s third retirement was an anxiety-ridden pursuit unlike any other American political undertaking. Although Washington left his eight year presidency to return to Mount Vernon, he remained politically engaged in the background. Ignorant to what the role of ex-president should entail, Washington requested the secretary of war, James McHenry, to notify him of developments in US international relations.
The ex-president, via a letter, pleaded, “Let me pray you have the goodness to communicate to me occasionally, such matters that are interesting, and not contrary to the rules of your official duty to disclose, we get so many details in the Gazettes, and of such different complexions, that it is impossible to know what credence to give any of them.”
If Washington cared so deeply about America’s foreign policy, why did he retire from public office? The historian John H. Rhodehamel precisely answers, “[Washington] was well aware of the effect that his resignation would have. He was trying to live up to the age’s image of a classical disinterested patriot who devotes his life to his country, and he knew at once that he had acquired fame as a modern Cincinnatus.”
Seeing the positive effect of power withdrawal from Roman history and from his penultimate retirement, Washington set a noble precedent through his resignation. Thus, the two-term tradition was born out of Washington’s desire to become a symbol of American democracy, one in which leaders release the reins of power so that the office might evolve with public interests.
The precedential nature of Washington’s role in the revolutionary period called for a mentor, ancient and renowned, to guide his political decisions. Cincinnatus became just that: a moral compass and an exemplary reputation: a symbol of what Washington could become. Cincinnatus became the archetypal leader that Washington set out to emulate, and drawing on the Roman statesman, Washington took executive actions to benefit the common good.
Although Washington’s benevolent intentions were undoubtedly present, there existed a crucial self-interested nature to these acts. Washington believed that in order to reach a reputation of similar caliber to the classics, one must nearly become a classical figure… And clearly he did.
By Giuseppe Aiello, contributing writer, Classical Wisdom
It is the year 69 before Christ. Gaius Julius Caesar, now more than thirty, is located in Cadiz, the ancient Gades of Punic origin.
Here, one step away from the famous Gates, where the Mediterranean flows into the ocean, the Roman wanders around the temple dedicated to Hercules, the mythical Greek hero that had advanced far and beyond.
Suddenly, Caesar stops in front of the statue of another half-god, Alexander the Great, who died at the age of not yet thirty-three, in June 323 BC.
Plutarch, in his “Parallel Lives“, and Suetonius in the “Lives of the Caesars” tell us the incident. To those who asked for the reason for his subdued weeping before the effigy of Macedonus, Caesar replied that he could not suffocate his pain. On the one hand, he saw how at 32, the same age as himself, Alexander had left, dying, a boundless empire that he had created. On the other hand, Caesar felt he had not yet completed a noteworthy undertaking.
The stroke of the thirty-second year for the two great Ancients, Alexander and Caesar, admirable icons of that historical era, was the end of existence for the first, and the beginning of an exceptional vital path for the second.
When the son of Philip II died, he left in the greedy hands of his successors a kingdom in which the sun rose on the Indus delta and set down diving into the Adriatic. Like hungry lions in contention with a great shred of fresh meat, Perdiccas, Antigonus, Ptolemy, Seleucus, and the other Macedonian generals, divided the immense empire of Alexander among themselves.
Death took the Great when all that could be conquered had been subdued: Greeks, Macedonians, Phoenicians, Syropalestinians, Egyptians, Armenians, Persians, Indians … Myriads of men and women of different races and lineages lived in relative serenity, in the shadow of the royal mantle of the Casa di Pella.
The Greekization of distant worlds (worlds that the Hellenic themselves called “barbarians”) found its main vehicle in the Alexandrian army. Thanks to the eternal exploits of the Macedonians, the overflow of the Hellenic language, customs and intellectual systems mixed with lands, also rich in history, spontaneously producing that epochal phenomenon that we call “Hellenism”.
It was not a forced imposition, where the people were compelled to assume the characteristics of the dominator (thus repudiating their own). Instead, it created by an extraordinary osmotic process of mutual assimilation, in which the habits, laws, and costumes of the winners and vanquished mixed together. Producing a new reality, this development gave way to the flourishing of the Hellenistic age.
When, at the age of 32, Alexander left earthly life in Babylon and entered the universal myth, he had already given a full display of his military genius. The battles of Granico (334 BC), Isso (333 BC) and Guagamela (331 BC) have exceptional importance within the history of mankind.
Thanks to them, and the success of Macedonian weapons, the great Persian King Darius III Codomannus, enemy par excellence of the Hellenic world, was yoked to Alexander’s cart. The glorious lineage of the Achaemenids was extinguished.
Alexander, the son of Olympias and the sublime student of Aristotle, had led the Macedonian phalanxes to victory counting an age between 22 and 25 years: a prodigy of precociousness.
No human being, as Alexander, has given the impression, in the course of his existence, of belonging more to the genus of the gods than to that of mortals… and so he was recognized as divine.
The crippled Caesar of Cadiz, in contrast, seemed at that moment to be fatally delayed on the road to imperishable glory. He was already a decade older than that young man who, at a little over twenty, had created a new world triumphing the bare and sandy plains of Asia. But at 32 years of age, Caesar was far from leading his legions into one of the great battles that would make his fame immortal. It wasn’t by forty years that he made the sword sing long and wide for the ecumene.
The Roman had not yet had the opportunity to show off his political and warlike genius. However, Fate and Fortuna would keep great things in store for him.
And so, where Alexander finished, Caesar began. Before the Roman, destiny possessed a further five decades of life, a period of time that he was able to fully exploit with a vigor, skill and mental lucidity that few other men have been able to show in the course of history.
The Triumvirate, the campaigns of Gallia and those against the Pompeians, the vicissitudes of Egypt alongside Cleopatra… the last decades of his star were certainly full of epochal events.
The time that Caesar enjoyed was relatively large: fifty-six years, of which the second half was vibrant and lived at large, all in an era in which the average expectation of a human being barely touched forty-five springs.
It was enough years for him to accomplish much of his purpose. It seems to us a pure dialectical exercise to hypothesize what else Caesar could have designed (and put into practice) if he had more time available, before the blades of the conspirators dramatically lowered the curtain on his life.
The works he performed were certainly extraordinary, and unworkable by any of his other contemporaries. Here is his imperishable greatness…and yet his work was profoundly human, linked to rational intentions and thoughts.
Alexander, on the other hand, reflects in himself the idea of the divine, and appears to us as a historical and temporal incarnation shaped by celestial forces. He is almost an unconscious executor of superior wills, indecipherable in the eyes of ordinary mortals. Pella’s young man dragged his earthly mission, driven by inexplicable motivation, unshakable dreams and boundless goals…all within a mere 32 years.
By Richardson Akande, Contributing Writer, Classical Wisdom
The History of the Roman Empire is embedded with war conquests by mighty generals who were exceptional in the art of war. From the beginning of the Republic around 509 BCE to the peak around 117 CE, to the fall of Rome and the adoption of Constantinople as the new capital in 330 CE, war was an integral part of the Empire. Many of its generals were considered the best swordsmen that ever led the red legions.
However, not all generals were in the class of finest warriors in the Empire. In fact, many won reputations as horrible generals, but one man stands out as arguably the worst the Empire produced and he still stands as one of the most corrupt officers in the history of the Empire.
Quintus Servilius Caepio the Elder was a General and a Roman statesman. He was born in Rome to a noble family; he was the grandfather of Servilia and the father of Quintus Servilius Caepio the Younger.
Caepio promulgated a Controversial law
He was consul in 106 BCE and during this time he enacted a controversial law. He was able to do so with the assistance of Lucius Licinius Crassus, a wonderful orator who convinced his fellow Romans with his linguistic skills. The law mandated the jurymen to be chosen among Senators, canceling the old order where jurymen were from the Equites, which were the property-based classes of ancient Rome, ranking below the senatorial class. Fortunately, the controversial law was suspended around 104 to 101 BCE, by Gaius Servilius Glaucia, who was a wonderful Roman and returned normalcy to the system.
Plundering of the Cursed gold of Tolosa
Apart from the law, controversies were a Siamese sibling of Quintus Servilius Caepio. Several occurred while he was on his way to Arausio (modern day France) with his legions in order to fight the Cimbri, a Germanic tribe of brave warriors.
First, Caepio decided to plunder the sacred temples of Tolosa, which is in the city of Toulouse. The myth at the time told of a semi-legendary sacred treasure, the famous aurum Tolosanum, which was assumed to be cursed gold taken from the Balkans during the time of the Gallic invasion.
It is on record that Caepio, in all his wisdom, stole 50,000 fifteen-pound gold bars and no less than 10,000 fifteen-pound silver bars.
The wealth of Tolosa was supposed to be shipped to Rome, but the General had a better idea: only the silver made the journey. The gold was stolen by a band of marauders, who were believed to have been hired by Caepio himself.
Then, while still on his way to the battle of Arausio, Caepio refused to share camp with General Gnaeus Mallius Maximus, a member of Novus homo, or ‘new man’ – a class that didn’t belong to the Roman elite.
Caepio, however, was born into a family of elite Romans and therefore felt Maximus was inferior to him.
Despite Caepio’ feelings, Maximus was a smart officer who knew when to strike his enemies dead or embark on negotiations. With the Cimbri, Maximus decided on the latter.
When Caepio learned that Maximus was at an advanced stage of negotiations and truce was about to be agreed upon, he moved his legions on the Germanic camp – feeling that no doubt his ‘inferior’ was going about it all wrong and that attack was better than truce. It was a terrible military decision.
He attacked the Cimbri forces on 6th of October, 105 BCE, and the Cimbri army brutally destroyed legions of Caepio’s army. With this decisive victory, the Germanic army felt confident enough to march on Maximus’ camp. Although Maximus tried to ready his soldiers, it was not enough to repeal the fierce Cimbri army.
The outcome was a devastating experience and the casualties were staggering, over 80,000 infantry lost their lives as well as more than 40,000 auxiliaries and calvary. The figures dwarf the tragic defeat at Cannae. Indeed, the Battle of Arausio ranks among one of the worse defeats that early Roman Empire suffered.
Caepio managed to escape unharmed, but on getting to Rome, he was tried for the excessive losses of his troops by the Tribune of the Plebs. His old accomplice Lucius Licinius Crassus defended him with his oratory skills, but in the end Caepio was handed the worse punishment in the empire…
He was stripped of Roman citizenship, denied fire and water within 800 miles of Rome, and was barred from speaking to his family and friends until exile. Finally, he was fined a whopping 15,000 talents of gold, more than the value missing under his watch.
He somehow managed not to pay the fine, and instead lived the rest of his life in exile at Smyrna, located in Asia minor, living in affluence and enjoying the loot from the missing gold of Tolosa. He even passed the wealth to his children…
Caepio might not have been a good General, he didn’t add any new territories to the Roman Empire, but he managed to write his name in history as an amazing thief.
Just how far did the ruler push his own perceived mortality?
By Jocelyn Hitchcock, Contributing Writer, Classical Wisdom
Julius Caesar is no stranger in history books. He has been encapsulated in plays, songs, parodies, and even Hollywood movies that paint him as a revered war general, a fearsome ruler, and one of the staunchest Romans you are sure to meet in antiquity. He represents a catapultic change in the Roman government, serving as an emblematic figure of the Fall of the Republic (though he would personally never admit to that, of course). His successor, Octavian Augustus, was Rome’s first emperor, and ushering in centuries of single hand rule.
However, Augustus’ position would not have been possible had it not been for Caesar’s careful and meticulous testing of Roman ideals and values in the 50’s and 40’s BCE. During his life, and certainly after, speculation swirled around the General about whether or not he was touting himself as a God and/or a king. Even though the ruling style of Rome turned imperial and monarchical, during Caesar’s time the title of “King” was highly offensive and considered dangerous to the Romans. They had a sharp objection to monarchy, as they still believed their precious Republic was not dead yet.
But let’s look at how the Republic started in the first place. After the fabled seven kings of Rome, the people set up a Republic to represent the people’s needs and wishes for their land. The kings were thought of as abusive, power hungry, and corrupt. The king held absolute power and was the chief magistrate in religion, law, and military matters.
The last king, Tarquinius Superbus, was overthrown after the rape of Lucretia and her subsequent suicide. Lucretia was the wife of Lucius Tarquinus Collatinus, and the daughter of Spurius Lucretius, a Roman noble. The rape and death of Lucretia was a tipping point for the Roman monarchy, seeing as Lucretia’s rapist was the king’s son.
The uprising of Romans was a direct response to the power, greed, and corrupt nature of the existing noble family- and the forceful theft of a noble woman’s virtue was the last straw. Romans saw to it that the royal family and government were stripped and destroyed, and in its place a representative government with separation of powers would rise. The title Rex or king, was preserved only as far as religion was concerned: the rex sacrorum. The Romans harbored a hatred for the title king in any other sense.
When Caesar came into the political sphere centuries later, he was smart and cunning, and his timing was perfect. While we wish we had personal journal entries outlining Caesar’s ambitions and hopes for his political career, we are unfortunately amiss. What we do have, however, is documentation in literature and archaeology that allows us to piece together Caesar’s agenda and programmatic scheme. Like people in antiquity, we still find ourselves questioning, “Was Caesar considered a god by Romans while he was still alive?” “Did he want to be called a king- outright?” “Was his assassination justified in the face of the republic?”
It is no convoluted analysis of the facts that Caesar was an excellent politician. Now, whether or not he started his career with the intent to be crowned king and deified is a whole different story. As his power and his reputation grew during the beginning of his military career in Gaul, so did his ambition. Caesar was well aware that demanding or expecting to be made a king or living god would have been outrageous and met with indignation. So, as any motivated politician would do, he began to create personal stepping stones and setting up certain “tests” along the way to gauge his power in Rome, presumably to lay the groundwork for posthumous deification at the least.
The first thing Caesar did was establish his military competence. After stints in Asia, Bithynia, and a victory of Mithridates VI, Caesar was elected military tribune in 72. He went on to be quaestor and aedile, in which he won over the favor of both the people and his soldiers through public shows and spectator events. In 63, Caesar was appointed pontifex maximus, which was secured through flagrant bribery according to Suetonius.
In 61 Caesar was sent to Further Spain as proprietor and returned in 60, joining Pompey and Crassus in a loose coalition that would help Caesar secure the Consulship of 59. This particular election was a turning point for Caesar’s career. He wanted to stand for consul in absentia and had to rely on the alliance of Pompey and Crassus to secure his interests while he was away in Gaul.
Over the next decade, this alliance was both a source of support as well as contention, ultimately leading to the civil war in 49 that lasted until 45 when Caesar returned to Rome and celebrated four triumphs (the Gallic, the Alexandrian, the Pontic, the African). The political climate in Rome at the time of Caesar’s success was defined by confusion and residual political distrust between the optimates and Caesar.
During the tumultuous years surrounding the civil war and unrest, the Roman people and the Senate grasped for any sort of normalcy and stability. To do this, what can only be referred to as dire measures were taken in order to “restore” the republic. Caesar, as a leading politician, charismatic figure, and motivated beyond measure, received honors, both mortal and divine, that were an attempt to stabilize Rome.
To them, Caesar was a constant and a strong defending hand. These honors are what makes us question whether or not Caesar was a god, a king, and if he himself was the one to promote these.
The mortal honors, bestowed upon him by the Senate, really show just how above the rest Caesar was considered. All of these had “legitimate” political motivation behind them, but when viewed in a group, it really does seem quite suspicious. Caesar was awarded a continual consulship in the months preceding his assassination (possibly in February 44), censorship for life, and the role of dictator for life. All of these were granted right before his assassination in March of 44, and all of this went against the very heart and ideals of Rome.
One man held the power of the military, the people, and all of Rome. Sounds like a king so far, doesn’t it?
What’s more, Caesar was honored with a number of divine honors. These honors, that were far beyond what would be bestowed on a politician, granted a flamen, vowed to build a temple to his clementia, and declared public sacrifices be made on his birthday for his safekeeping. We do know that Caesar wasn’t officially deified by the Senate until after his death- however, combine these divine honors with his mortal honors and we have to question: WHAT was Caesar?
Clearly, seeing as Caesar was killed weeks after receiving his highest honors, his position was not one of “republican” values and enough people were threatened and bothered by his position to call an end to his rule. Caesar’s position was unprecedented in Rome and that cannot be overstated. He did not call himself a king or a god…. But when looking at his honors and his rule, didn’t he? He tested the people over and over, putting out feelers for what he could get away with and then judged the crowd’s reaction. He was smart to never go over a line without sketching it out first and softly nudging the people towards it.
After his death and by the time Augustus succeeded him, the stage was set and the people were ready: Rome was no longer a Republic. And shockingly, they were okay with that.
The Republic of Serbia is one of the states that made up the former Yugoslavia, which broke up in the bloody wars that occurred during the 1990s. Since history immemorial, this region on the Balkan Peninsula has been the scene of various political and cultural influences… and has resulted in a famous trek: The routes of the Roman Emperors.
The routes of the Roman Emperors are based on the fact that the Romans conquered Croatia, Serbia, Romania, and Bulgaria… and that 19 emperors were born in this territory. The routes lead through ancient Roman cities, palaces, and fortifications in these countries.
As far as Serbia is concerned, this tourist and archaeological project includes a 600 km long route with several ancient Roman sites, including cities and places of birth of 17 out of the 19 Roman emperors.
But let us take a look at a few of the more interesting ‘Serbian’ Roman Emperors.
Trajanus Decius (Caesar Gaius Messius Quintus Trajanus Decius)
Trajan Decius was the first man born in Serbia to rise to the imperial throne. This Roman emperor was born around 201 AD in Budalija, near Sirmium – today’s Martinci near Sremska Mitrovica. The army elected him to the position in 249, and he died in 251 in the area of today’s Dobrudzha in the battle against Goth. He is also known for being the first Roman emperor to die in battle. Shortly thereafter, he was declared or proclaimed a deity.
Claudius Gothic (Marko Aurelius Valerius Claudius Augustus)
Claudius Gothic was born in Sirmium in the year 210. After he defeated Gotha in the battle of Niasuss (Nis) in 268, the army chose him to be emperor. He is known for ordering the execution of a Christian monk on February 14th, 269, who later became known as Saint Valentine. Claudius Gothic died of plague in the beginning of the year 270, and the Roman Senate described him as Divine Claudius Gothic.
Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus)
Aurelian was born around Sirmium in 214 on a small farm estate. In 270, the Danube legion chose him as an emperor after the death of Claudius II. He was known as the advocate of the Mithraism and the cult of the Invincible Sun, as well as the fiscal reformer. The most important thing he did was the demolition of the secluded Gaelic Empire and its return under the auspices of Rome. He ruled for five years, up to 275, when he was killed by the Praetorian Guard on his way to Asia Minor when he planned to conquer Mesopotamia.
Probus (Marcus Aurelius Probus)
Probus was born in 232 AD on a farm near Sirmium. He ruled from 276 to 282. Like Aurelian, he was killed by his own army, after forcing them to dig channels on a hot summer day. Later they repented and buried him with all the imperial honors. He remained famous for being the first emperor to allow the cultivation of grapes outside of Italy. The first grape was grown in Glavica on the mountain Fruška Gora. Then, grape growing began in Smederevo, a town near Belgrade (Singidunum). From then on, in Serbia, they cultivate an indigenous grape variety, known as Smederevo’s grapes).
Maximian, (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus)
Maximian was born near Sirmium around 250 AD. Diocletian pronounced him Caesar in 285, and then Maximian was titled Augustus, along with and equal to Diocletian. He ruled with Diocletian from 286 to 305, when they abdicated together. He returned to the throne in the year 310, however, it was thwarted by the then legitimate ruler Constantine I, after which Maximian committed suicide.
Galerius, (Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus)
Galerius was born and buried in Felix Romuliana (Gamzigrad), near Zajecar, where he built most of the structures, the remains of which we can see today. He built his palace in the 3rd and 4th centuries for himself and for his mother Romuli, whom he was named after. Even though he was known as the great persecutor of Christians, he rebelled before death and issued the Edict of Serdica, also called Edict of Toleration by Galerius, officially ending the Diocletianic persecution of Christianity in the East.
Constantine I, also known as Constantine the Great, (Flavius Valerius Constantinus)
Constantine the Great was born in (Naisuss) Nis, February 27, 272, from father Constance Hlor and mother Jelena, who was of modest origin. He is remembered as the greatest emperor of the late Roman Empire, and is considered one of the most important figures in the history of Europe and Christianity. He ruled from 306 to 337. He proposed the Edict of Milan in 313, proclaiming religious equality and the cessation of the persecution of Christians. This period of peace was used to build the New Rome – Constantinople.
Licinius (Gaius Valerius Licinianus)
Licinius I was born around 263 near Felix Romuliana. Together with Constantine the Great, he proposed the Milan edict and became a co-ruler with him, and even married his sister. He led two civil wars against Constantine: the first ended in peace, although Licinius suffered a heavy defeat, and the other, in 324, he lost. He was imprisoned in Byzantium, the future Constantinople, then taken as prison to Thessalonica. There by Constantine’s order, Licinius was executed together with his son and Constantine’s sister.
Jovian (Flavius Jovianus)
Jovian was born around 331 in Singidunum, today Belgrade, of a peasant family. He ruled from 363 to 364, a total of 236 days. After the death of Julianus, he was chanted by the army to be the emperor, but it is believed that the legionaries confused him with another Jovian, who was the chief notary. He died suddenly in a dream, and the death of this ruler remained under a veil of secrets: some believe that the Senate was trying to get rid of him. The version that is universally accepted and therefore has entered history is that Jovian died of coal poisoning, as there was a furnace in his room.
All together, 17 Roman rulers were born on the territory of today’s Republic of Serbia. This impressive number makes up a fifth of all the rulers of Rome, and no modern state, except Italy, can boast of so many emperors. During the reign of these ‘Serbian’ Roman rulers, trade and metallurgy was developed. Important cities in the center of the Roman Empire were built up in both financial and social terms as well as the construction of magnificent villas, Roman baths (terme), theaters, and lagoons for Roman legions in the cities…the remains of many can still be seen today.
By NATALIA KLIMCZAK
Constantine the Great is known in history as the first Roman Emperor to convert to Christianity. However, legends and archaeological evidence suggest a different story– it seems that Constantine had a secret about his faith which was hidden for centuries.
Constantine built many churches. He celebrated the faith in one (Christian) God and his son Jesus by creating many of the greatest churches of the world, including: St. Peter’s in Rome, The Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem, The Eleona on the Mount of Olives, The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, and others.
***Editor’s Note: St. Peter’s Basilica was commissioned by Pope Julius II in the 6th Century, which replaced the original 4th Century structure which had indeed been built by Constantine. This is to say that the current St. Peter’s Basilica is not the one built by Constantine.***
Constantine became emperor in 306 AD, and ruled for 31 years. According to tradition, just before the battle of the Milvian Bridge (Rome) in 312, he experienced a vision of a flaming cross with the inscription ”In his sign conquer”. As the legends say, he understood it as a sign from the Christian God asking him to convert. Constantine believed that he would be awarded with unusual power, the support of a deity, and the greatest kingdom of the world if he followed through with the vision.
By the decree of Constantine, Christianity became the official religion of Rome in 324. However, did he really become a true Christian, or was he just seeking the support of powerful bishops for political purposes?
The Christian Emperor of Rome
In the group of his closest advisers there were bishops such as Hosius, Lactantius, and Eusebius of Caesarea. He appointed the group of converted Christians to high positions in many parts of his empire. The Christian ministers had special privileges. He also extended many benefits to pagan priests who became Christian ministers. For example, they received monetary support from the Empire and didn’t pay taxes.
The bishops were a faithful army for the ruler, but apart from creating some laws, temples, and supporting the growing group of priests, Constantine didn’t appear to be much of a Christian. He agreed with the bishops’ suggestions to legislate against magic and private divination. But if a change in these kinds of laws was not put forth by an influential bishop, Constantine wasn’t interested in making the changes.
With his decree many pagan temples were destroyed. For example, he ordered the damage of the Temple of Aphrodite in Lebanon, but also many other ceremonial pagan places. It seems that he was interested in destroying some of the important places of pre-Christian cults, but at the same time destruction didn’t apply to all of them. In every decision to destroy a pagan temple, it was written that the place could not exist because it was a site of misguided rites and ceremonies – a place of true obstinacy. He never outright banned pagan rituals like sacrifices, but only closed and destroyed important temples when the bishops felt the sites were dangerous to their own faith.
Apart from his political motives to support the growing army of priests, Constantine may have had a secret. What is more interesting, is that it seems that the bishop of Rome knew about it, and supported him in this hidden aspect of his life. The truth was that Constantine outwardly supported the new religion but still worshiped the Sun and pagan symbols.
A Sun-Worshipping Christian?
Constantine grew up in the court of the emperor Constantine Chlorus, who was a Neoplatonist and a devotee of the Unconquered Sun. His mother, Empress Helena, was a Christian who traveled through the Middle East searching for key sites connected to Jesus. According to the ancient texts, she was the one who identified the most important places known in the Bible. Young Constantine didn’t appear as a follower of his mother’s religious interests. He worshiped the Sun, or was devoted to Mithraism.
After his official conversion to Christianity in 312, Constantine built his triumphal arch in Rome. It is interesting that it wasn’t dedicated to the symbols of Christianity, but to the Unconquered Sun. During his reign, he changed many aspects connected with pagan cults, but that doesn’t mean that he stopped the cultivation of old traditions. He often named them differently, but still allowed for pagan practices in many ways. For example, in 321 Constantine legislated that the celebration of the Day of the Sun should be a state holiday – a day off for everybody.
The Confusing Column of Constantine
In 330, Constantine set up a statue which is a key to understanding his private beliefs. After decades of supporting Christianity, he appeared as a statue of the Sun god in the forum. The column became the center of the Forum of Constantine, nowadays known as the Cemberlitas Square in Istanbul. Today, the column is 35 meters (114.8 feet) tall, but in the ancient times it was 15 meters (49.2 feet) taller, and ended with an impressive statue of the emperor. The column was decorated with pagan symbolism supported by some Christian decoration.
The statue on the top of the monument presented Constantine in the figure of Apollo with a Sun crown, the greatest symbol of the kings from the times of Alexander the Great. It is said that he carried a fragment of the True Cross in his hand – a relic of the cross of Jesus. At the foot of the column there was a sacred place which contained relics, including other parts of crosses, a basket from the biblical story of the loaves and fishes miracle, a jar which belonged to Mary Magdalene, and a wooden statue of Pallas Athena from Troy.
The Byzantine emperor Manuel I Komnenos (1143 – 1180) saw this monument as too pagan, and he decided to place a cross in place of the statue on the top of the column. The monument was damaged a few times in history, but the column has survived until modern times. Parts of the statue of Constantine are located in a museum, but the Column of Constantine is still one of the most important examples of Roman Art in Turkey.
True Christian, Secret Pagan, or a God?
After his death in 337, Constantine became one of the pagan gods. An analysis of archaeological sites suggests that Constantine, like previous emperors of Rome, had never stopped seeing himself as a son of the ancient deities. It is hard to believe that Constantine’s Christian beliefs were as strong as his mother Helena’s. He appears more as an intelligent politician than a man who truly wanted to Christianize the world.